Luke Yang: Research Information

to:Period 6- Eng 11/12

Time Feb. 07, 2012

"Snowboarding" Encyclopædia Britannica from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service:
Winter sport that evolved from skateboarding and surfing. Three main styles of competition exist: Alpine, Freestyle, and Boardercross. Developed in the 1960s, Snowboarding was believed to have originated in the United States, where several inventors explored the idea of surfing on the snow. The sport, however, quickly evolved, and the early, rudimentary Snowboards gave way…

It's highly unlikely that there's someone who has never seen nor heard of Snowboarding. But if you really have no idea what Snowboarding is, just imagine it as surfing or skateboarding - only on snow. Snowboarding is a relatively new winter sport wherein you ride an epoxy-fiberglass board (resembling a large skateboard) with your feet strapped on it, and manipulate gravity to go down a ski slope or a specially constructed pipe. The principle of Snowboarding is to maintain your balance as you surf down a ski slope with both feet securely attached to the Snowboard via high-back or non - release plate bindings.

In Skiing, skiers shift their weight from one Ski to the other. In Snowboarding, riders shift their weight from heels (heelside) to toes as well as from one end of the board to the other. To stop the board's motion, they push their heels or toes down hard to dig the edge of the Snowboard into the snow. Although most people compare Snowboarding to Skiing, Snowboarding Techniques are closer to skateboarding and surfing than to Skiing.
What can this site teach me?
This site contains a wide range of information that you will need to start with Snowboarding - from Snowboarding Styles, jumps, spins and aerial moves, Snowboarding Safety Precautions, to the different Types of Snow. Moreover, this site explains all the necessary pieces of Snowboard Equipment you will need for this sport, how and where Snowboard Gear can be purchased, and of course, how to use the Snowboard Equipment. Whether you're snowboarding for the first time, attempting a new Snowboarding Trick, or trying to step up your riding to the next level, with the various articles in this site, we're certain you'll be able to find the information that will help develop, improve, and harness your Snowboarding skills.

Sky diving
Skydiving is an activity where people jump off from an airplane at high altitude before landing on the ground. While many consider this an extreme sport, it is also used by the military for various purposes.
In sports, parachuting is the term used for skydiving. Here, a group of people jump from an aircraft and perform various aerial maneuvers before landing. While they are airborne, a group of judges watch what they do and score them accordingly. The team that garners the most points wins.
In the military, skydiving was a backup system to save airmen who have to evacuate their aircraft. But years later, this was soon replaced with ejection seats. This did not stop the military from maximizing its potential because they soon realized that this is one way to drop troops quickly into a battle zone.
During the Second World War, airborne troops were dropped behind military lines. This practice is still being done today not only by the regular army but also by specialized units. Outside the military, wildfire fighters are deployed into a remote site if that is the only way in the fire zone.
The history of sky diving dates goes back to the 18th century because this was done by Andre Jacques Garnerin who jumped from this air balloon with a parachute.
To make skydiving safe for those who jump, the gear they use is checked on a regular basis before they board and exit the aircraft. If the first parachute fails, a backup parachute is deployed and sometimes the person does not have to do anything if this is deployed automatically once it reaches a certain altitude.
Skydivers have to be physically fit, attend classes and be certified before they can go on a jump. For people who just want to try it, they can enlist the services of a skydiving company who will assign someone to do it with them.
There are thousands of sky divers in the US and the number is still growing because there are over 400 skydiving centers scattered all across the country. Some are open all year round, seven days a week while there are some that are only open on weekends. This really depends on the weather conditions and the discretion of those who run it.
Although there is no minimum age for skydiving, most skydiving centers require the individual to be at least 18 years of age. You can still jump even if you are 60 years old as long as you are not epileptic, have heart ailments or obese.
Skydiving is a safe activity despite the fact that you travel at a high speed before finally landing on the ground. On average 35 out of two million people who jump are killed each year. The cause of death is carelessness while very rare is it caused by equipment failure.
This is why it is important for skydivers both amateur and professionals to be trained very well in the use of their equipment. After jumping a few times with someone and taking ground classes, you may soon want to try this on your own.
Before you can do that, you have to sign a legally binding assumption of risk agreement which means that despite the risks involved in jumping from a plane, you are still willing to do so and not holding the skydiving center responsible should something happen.
Mountain climbing

Mountaineering or the sport of climbing mountains is simply one of the finest outdoor opportunities available to the lover of high places. Mountain climbing is all about challenge and perseverance, about putting hands and feet onto rocks and ice and snow and finally reaching a summit. There, high above the world of cities and civilization, the climber can pause and look across a natural world ruled by nature and her raw beauty
Mountain climbing is, like rock climbing, a risky activity and not to be taken lightly not matter how easy or benign your chosen peak might seem. Remember: Looks can be deceiving. The mountains are filled with danger and drama. Lightning can stab out of a clear sky. Thunderstorms quickly form and drench you with rain and sleet. Rockfall and avalanches sweep down mountain faces. Difficulties can slow you, forcing you to bivouac in the open. You or your climbing partner can have an accident, causing all kinds of complications. If you’re a novice and inexperienced in the ways of the mountains, then it’s wise to go with more experienced companions or a guide. You can learn from them what it takes to be safe in the mountains so you can return another day for a new adventure.

Shark fishing

"Shark fishing is like watching the grass grow". That was the comment from a great mate that worked on my boat last yeat. Thanks to Doug S. for the great quote! By the way, if you're looking for shark charter info, I have a complete page available including tournament dates and rates.
Well, it's a lot more fun than watching the grass grow, but there are times when the process is a slow one. So, I like to say that shark fishing is a lot like, well, fishing. Like any other type of fishing, there are good days and bad ones.
When to fish for sharks
It just so happens that June water temps usually climb to a point that these toothy predators begin to inhabit our waters in Montauk. It's always a good idea to watch water temperatures closely before you go shark fishing. In the early days of the season, look for warm water temperature breaks. When summer kicks in heavy, look for colder water among the hot, flat offshore waters. If I had the choice of when to fish for sharks, I'd choose the last week of June through the first week of July OR the first 2 weeks of October.
Where do we fish for sharks?
There are numerous shark spots within striking distance of boats leaving from Montauk. These spots range anywere from 10 to 55 miles from the point. The most important things about your location are structure and water temperature. A structure can be a rise or dip in the sea floor. Since shark fishing is normally drift fishing, chart your drift, based on wind and tide, to follow the edges of the structure you choose. From Montauk, there are excellent shark fishing spots to the east, southeast, south and southwest.
What to bring on a shark fishing trip?
When chumming for sharks (most popular) your gear should be able to handle a fish over 300 lbs. It is not uncommon to hook into a shark that exceeds this weight. Whatever gear you choose and depending on wind and tide, you should fish with 3 - 5 baits in the water. That means, you will need just as many rod/reel setups. I recommend the following tackle:
Don't forget bait and chum:
Flat of Bunker
Flat of Mackerel
Fresh Bluefish (if available)
Live bluefish (if available)

let me list some other important things to bring on a shark trip:
Food - don't forget to pack snacks
Sunscreen - drifting in the sun and heat can set in a serious burn if you're not prepared
Cold drinks - Beers are fine (for everyone BUT the Captain), but don't forget to bring non-alchoholic drinks to keep you from dehydrating.
A Hat
A sweatshirt - yes, it can be cool out there, even on sunny days.

Dirt biking

Are you interested in an active recreational pursuit that you can enjoy with your family?  Explore the world of dirt biking!
What is a Dirt Bike?
Dirt bikes are off-road, lightweight motorcycles that have rugged tires and suspension.  They are built for riding cross-country and through rough terrain such as sand, dirt, mud, and rocks.  However, dirt bikes can also be ridden on the street if they have turn signals, lights, and mirrors plus a speedometer and odometer.
Choosing a Bike
A dirt bike can cost thousands of dollars, so you want to make sure you choose the right bike for you.  The type of bike you choose depends on the type of riding you want to do.  There are five types of dirt bikes:
• Trail-riders, which are made for casual riding over rough terrain.
• Motocross bikes, which are made for racing.
• Dual-purpose bikes, which can be used on off-road trails and on the street.
• Enduro bikes, which are made for races that test endurance.
• Desert bikes, which are racing bikes used in desert races.
The size, age, and weight of the rider also affect what kind of bike you buy:  your feet need to touch the ground, and you need to be able to pick the bike up.  If you weigh less than 150 pounds, and are just getting started with dirt biking, consider buying a 150 cc bike.  If you are an experienced dirt bike rider or weigh closer to 200 pounds, a larger bike may work better for you.
It is best to try out some bikes before you buy, so visit a dirt bike dealer or a motorcycle shop, and sit on a variety of dirt bikes.  It's also a good idea to rent or borrow a bike before you buy one, so you can try it out fully before spending some big money.
Learning How to Ride
Once you have chosen your bike, you are ready for your first ride!  It may look intimidating, but if you can ride a bike and drive a stick-shift car, you can learn to ride a dirt bike.  Some ways to learn to ride include asking a friend to teach you, joining a riding club and riding with experienced riders, and taking a class.  To find classes in your area, check out the Motorcycle Safety Foundation and the Dirt Bike School.
For your first ride, you need to choose an area that is large and flat, with hard-packed dirt and nothing to run into.  Sit in the middle of the seat, on the indentation where the seat meets the gas tank, lean forward slightly, and bring your elbows up and out.  Your feet should just be able to touch the ground.
Before you start the dirt bike, take a few moments to familiarize yourself with the controls, especially the throttle, brakes, clutch lever, and shift lever.  If you aren't sure where everything is, take a few moments to look through your user's manual.
Once you're ready, you can start your bike.  You may feel wobbly at first.  To improve your stability, look ahead instead of downwards, and ride a bit faster by releasing the throttle slightly.  If you run into trouble, disengage the clutch and apply the brakes.
Now that you have been introduced to dirt bikes, if you are ready to compare dirt biking products and accessories, check out Japanese dirt bike manufacturers Yamaha, Honda, Kawasaki, and Suzuki, as well as the USA distributor for Chinese dirt bike maker American Lifan.


What is surfing but an outlet for anxiety and stress, an inlet for nature and satisfaction, a connection between you and the ocean, your board acting as some semi-conductor of magnetic and gravitational forces pulsing from the center the sprawling expanse of nature itself? Sounds a bit fluffy, huh? But stay with me on this.
Surfing is a Connection to the Beyond
What is surfing but a connection to something beyond our understanding? It’s this connection that's at the very core of the surfing experience. This connection is addictive, all-encompassing, and sometimes all-powerful. This connection enthralls many to forsake relationships, careers, and even their own health only to emerge ten years down the line, weather-beaten and alone with "only" memories of great waves and great times.
Surfing: the noble addiction
If you ask “What’s wrong with that?” Then you know where I am coming from. It all sounds tragic, but it is a noble addiction. Some risk their lives hurling themselves over precipices of liquid concrete into the guts of a 30-foot meat grinder with little fanfare but maybe a few hoots from the channel. Sure, there are praise and money in the surf industry abuzz with cameras, cash, and competition, but that only makes up such a small portion of the surfing experience that it’s hardly worth mentioning.
Surfing is Rider, Board, and Fluid
Real surfers don’t need a team or a game to test their mettle. In the real surfing world, there are simply rider, board, and a fluid, uneven, and predictably unpredictable playing field, an unfeeling surface ready to swallow you whole or spit you out in shreds onto the sand, or worse, lay dormant and leave you lost and dry among the landlocked masses who have no understanding of why you get up at dawn in the splitting cold for nothing more than mushy wind swell (Man! That was one insanely complex sentence). Heck, I doubt you even know why you surf. And that's what's so great about it.
Surfing the Mystery
Surfing is a mystery, but with enough romance to draw in droves of disciples. Some put in a season and then fade back into normalcy, unsatisfied with the high or all done mining the lifestyle of its image.
Others, however, get hooked in the best way. We are the lucky ones. We see surfing as a ticket to a place only the chosen get to see. A place where only fins keep us from taking flight, where a sixteen old and a fifty year old can understand each other’s passion, a place safe enough to send your daughter but just dangerous enough to keep your boss away.
If you haven’t tried surfing, go for it. Surfing might move you to the core or just touch you beautifully and leave. It is, however, better to have surfed and quit then never to have surfed at all.

What is extreme sports

The definition of extreme sports is not very clear. Generally speaking, extreme sports are activities that are associated with an adrenaline rush that is felt by the participant. These activities are often dangerous and any mistake could result in injury or even death. Extreme sports are usually done by individuals rather than teams.

During the 1970's and 1980's, the term "extreme sports" was almost exclusively used for sports that had high risks involved and often resulted in death. The history of extreme sports is a very interesting topic and shows how it developed into the huge craze that it is. Today, however, extreme sports also include activities that give a feeling of an adrenaline rush not necessarily putting the participant's life in harms way.


Base jumping

BASE stands for Building, Antenna, Span, and Earth. BASE jumpers leap from any and all of these four fixed objects with parachutes designed specifically for rapid deployment. Known around the world as the most extreme of extreme sports, BASE jumpers look forward to Bridge Day ® every year.
The New River Gorge Bridge saw its first BASE jumpers in 1979, just 2 years after the bridge was completed and opened to the public. As more and more people entered the sport, the tradition of coming to West Virginia for Bridge Day has grown- more than 800 jumps were made last year.
The vast majority of people (more than 80,000 expected!) come to Bridge Day to watch. All of the jumpers are registered, and can make as many jumps as they are able to within a six hour window.
• The bridge is open for pedestrian traffic from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m., with BASE jumpers leaving the bridge from the jump deck the entire time.
• The designated Landing Zone for jumpers is the parking area at the Fayette Station river access on the south side of the gorge.
• Spectators can take in the action from a number of spots within the gorge. In addition to walking out on the bridge, jumpers can be viewed from hiking trails along the rim, the Fayette Station river access, and the National Park observation deck at the New River Gorge Bridge visitor's center.
BASE Jumping Registration Information
All BASE jumping activities at Bridge Day 2011 will be coordinated by Vertical Visions LLC, owned by West Virginia BASE jumper and skydiver Jason Bell (BASE #428, D-16725), assisted by his wife Jennifer, Charleston native Bill Bird (D-6977), and over 50 staff members.
Anybody can watch this exciting feat, but not just anybody can jump. Jumpers must first skydive numerous times from aircraft before attempting to BASE jump. Jumpers must also register in advance. Jumper registration begins on July 1, 2011 at, a website dedicated to Bridge Day BASE jumping. For questions regarding Bridge Day BASE jumping, please visit

Free running


Free-Running is a physical and mental art/discipline in which Free-Runner’s train with the intent to develop their mind and body in order to overcome and/or interact with obstacles in urban and natural environments in the most intelligent and physically challenging manner

Free-Running requires... consistent, disciplined training focused toward functinal strength, conditioning, expansion of the mental and physical capabilities, creativity, spatial awareness and, looking beyond the traditional use of objects.

Free-Running movements include ... running, balance, vaulting, rolling, climbing, and jumping. Movements from other physical disciplines are often used. Acrobatic movements can be used but are not the primary focus, therefore acrobatics and tricking alone do not constitute Free-Running. There is no single movement that constitutes Free-Running, the reason for that is there are an infinite amount of situations you can be found in. The choice of movements is purely personal; furthermore a Free-Runner should be able to distinguish what is effective and what is expressive at the time in which the movement is most appropriate.

Efficiency… must be a balance of speed, conservation of energy, and safety. The balance of these three is to be decided as situations present themselves. Efficiency relates to the idea of overcoming obstacles.

Creativity… excludes excessive Tumbling and Tricking. Since wall-flips interact with an obstacle they are can be considered Free-Running movements, as previously stated creativity relates to interacting with obstacles.

Furthermore… On the Physical end, Free-Running is utility based and any aesthetic aspects used before you are useful or efficient is discouraged at all times. If the technique is aesthetically pleasing then this is purely coincidental and not a primary focus. As such, movements and techniques that are based purely on aesthetic value, or where the aesthetic value precedes the utilitarian value, are secondary in Free-Running.

On the Mental side of things, Free-Running is a human discipline, involving all human capabilities, not just the physical ones. This means that you should also use the mentality of “overcoming” obstacles in everyday life. The thinking and philosophy behind your training should be applied to all areas of your life.

Training focuses on... safety, longevity, personal responsibility, self-improvement, mental and physical health, critical thinking, vitality, strength, balance, flexibility, speed, endurance, tenacity, creativity and focus. Training also involves application of theory of movements in overall life. It  discourages reckless behavior, showing off, and dangerous stunts.            

Free-Runners value... community, humility, positive collaboration, sharing of knowledge, Self-development, respect, courage, consistency, control, and strength. The importance of work and play in human life and we believe that understanding one’s limits and using mental and physical training to overcome these boundaries is a key to development in the discipline and in overall life. We have respect for all people, places, and spaces.  Free-Runners discourage recklessness. Free-Running is a serious discipline and also a progressive art; therefore it should be treated as such.





Windsurfing is an invitation to intimacy with elemental powers you can not access in any other way. It's more than just a ride using the wind's power to skim over the water -- it's a relationship with the Source, the sacred Vis-anima*, the "soul-moving" force of the universe. You might think that's a heck of a tall order for what is supposed to be either a fun, light-hearted, recreational acitivity or an adrenaline-filled X-game type thing, but, this sport delivers. You see, on a windsurfing board, there is so little between you and this Power that its closeness -- its intimacy -- can alter your perceptions of the natural world. I'm serious. Think about it... 

This sport is not fed by the constant tug of gravity you feel every moment of your life. 

It doesn't use an intrusive, artificial internal combustion engine one can turn one and off at will.  

This is not a game with balls, boundaries, and rules to define the limits of your experience.  
Like its noble precursor, wave surfing, this sport is a "different order" experience. Venture into windsurfing and you will discover a sport that brings freedom and elevates the soul with every ride because YOU make it unique each time . This experience can vary greatly over a wide range from peaceful and sublime to extreme and radical. Feel the sublte texture of wind and water on a light-air, low wind day. Humble yourself as you scream across the whitecaps participating in the relentless power of a nor'easter. Commune with the sea as you soar in, through, and above the ocean's surf. There is simply no other sport as dynamic as windsurfing!
*Vis-anima -- Johannes Kepler of Wurttemburg, Germany, in 1594 used the Latin terms vis (force) and anima (soul) to describe the mystical power that caused the planets to move in their orbits and, by extension, all movement of weather and oceans on Earth. Kepler, a deeply spiritual soul, sought to describe the metaphysical harmony of the universe, that all creation moves with a delightful purpose. Sometimes -- especailly when windsurfing -- I feel he did a better job than all modern astrophysicists and theologians combined.

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