Welcome The Schilling School for Gifted Children
Thanksgiving Break Review Packet
TimeNov. 28, 2011
Verbs are the most important words in the sentence because it will tell you what person (1st, 2nd, or 3rd) and what number (singular, or plural) the subject of the sentence is.
To conjugate a Latin verb (i.e. to put the Latin verb in all persons and numbers) you must follow three rules. What are the 3 rules to conjugating a Latin verb?
1. Find the _________________________.
2. Add the ________________________ ________________________.
3. Then, add the ________________________.
In order to find the stem of a verb, you must chop off the _______________ ending (i.e. the 2nd principle part of the verb).
To find the thematic vowel of a verb, you must look at the first letter of the _______________ ending.
The endings of a verb are: _____, _____, _____, _____, _____, and _____.
Conjugate the verb specto, spectare.
1st ¬¬¬_______________ ¬¬¬_______________
2nd ¬¬¬_______________ ¬¬¬_______________
3rd ¬¬¬_______________ ¬¬¬_______________
There are also 3 ways to translate Latin verbs. For example, laborat can be translated as he works, he is working, or he does work. All 3 forms are acceptable.
Match the translation of laborat with its corresponding form.
1._____ he does work. A. simple
2. _____ he works. B. emphatic
3. _____ he is working C. progressive
Understanding the linking verbs est, sunt, erat, and erant.
Notice that in the form he is working, the linking verb “est” does not appear. That is because in this sentence, “is” is used as a helping verb NOT as a linking verb which is the only time that “est” is used.
THERE CAN ONLY BE ONE CONJUGATED VERB IN A SENTENCE!
The verbs est, sunt, erat, and erant are LINKING verbs, not HELPING verbs. They will only be used if “is,” “are,” “was,” or “were” are the MAIN verbs in a sentence.
Example: He was a farmer. In this sentence, was in the main verb.
He was planting seeds. In this sentence the main verb is planting. That is what the farmer is doing. In this sentence was is only helping in introducing the main verb. Thus, it is a helping verb and not a linking verb, so erat would not be used.
Again, only if “is,” “are,” “was,” or “were” are the MAIN verbs in a sentence, then and only then will est, sunt, erat, and erant be used.
Practice: identify whether the verbs “is,” “are,” “was,” or “were” are linking verbs, or helping verbs. Then write the verb in Latin.
LINKING/HELPING CONJUGATED VERB
Ex. Are they getting ready for the holidays? helping parant
(are getting ready) (3rd, plural)
1. My friends are here. _______________ _______________
2. She was carrying many jars of water. _______________ _______________
3. They were working very diligently. _______________ _______________
4. Are your friends nice? _______________ _______________
LINKING/HELPING CONJUGATED VERB
5. Is he praising the Lord? _______________ _______________
6. Was he a farmer? _______________ _______________
7. They are preparing a feast. _______________ _______________
8. We are watching the game. _______________ _______________
9. She is so nice. _______________ _______________
10. My friend was here. _______________ _______________
Unlike English, the noun’s position in a Latin sentence does not determine its function. Sometimes the subject might appear AFTER the direct object!! In order to determine the function of a Latin noun you must look at the noun’s _______________.
Only by looking at a noun’s ending, can you determine whether it is a subject or a direct object, or even whether it is singular or plural!!!
There are 3 components to Latin nouns. The ending of a noun determines these 3 components which are:
There are 5 declensions of Latin nouns, but thus far we’ve learned the 1st declension which is predominately ____________________ in gender and the 2nd declension which is
____________________ in gender.
Nouns can NOT switched declensions or genders. If a noun is 1st declension it may ONLY have the 1st declension endings. If a noun is 2nd declension it may ONLY have the 2nd declension endings.
YOU MUST LEARN TO WHICH DECLENSION A NOUN BELONGS!
Complete the chart with the correct endings:
FIRST DECLENSION SECOND DECLENSION
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative _____ _____ _____ _____
Accusative _____ _____ _____ _____
If a noun has a nominative ending, that means it must function as the _______________ in the sentence.
If a noun has the accusative ending, that means it must function as the ____________________ (2 words) in the sentence.
And adjective is a word that is modifying a ____________________. In Latin, because word order does not determine function, it also does not determine what noun an adjective is modifying. Adjectives may not even appear next to the noun it is modifying. Therefore, in order to determine what noun an adjective is modifying, the two (noun and adjective) must agree in:
Since we have only learned nouns of the 1st and 2nd declensions, and likewise have only learned adjectives in the 1st and 2nd declensions, the noun and adjective will have the EXACT same endings. There is only ONE instance in which this is not true and that will be with the noun agricola.
Agricola is a 1st declension noun; however, it is NOT feminine. It is called a pain noun because it takes the 1st declension endings BUT it is masculine. Thus, if an adjective modifies it, the adjective will take 2nd declension endings.
Write the nominative and accusative, singular and plural forms for “good farmer.”